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Science of SEM

This section focuses on the research completed to develop the SEM assessment technology foundational science and mode of operation. Including how SEM assessment technology identifies increased risk of PI/U and how to treat a high SEM (∆) delta as a stage/category 1 PI/U to prevent them from further deterioration.

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Phantom Testing of the Sensitivity and Precision of a Sub-Epidermal Moisture Scanner.

Cohen, L. et al. 2019. International Wound Journal

Aim: In the present work, the SEM Scanner was tested under controlled laboratory conditions to experimentally determine its sensitivity and precision in identifying small (1ml) water content changes in phantoms of the human heel and skull/face, which simulated common PI/U development scenarios.

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Sensitivity and Laboratory Performances of a Second-Generation Sub-Epidermal Moisture Measurement Device.

Peko, L. et al. 2020. International Wound Journal

Aim: We were interested in experimentally evaluating the sensitivity and laboratory performances of a second generation design of a new sub-epidermal moisture (SEM) measurement device that is able to identify localised fluid content changes in skin and subdermally, which may precede a PI/U.

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A Blinded Clinical Study Using a Sub-Epidermal Moisture Biocapacitance Measurement Device for Early Detection of Pressure Injuries.

Okonkwo, H. et al. 2020. Wound Repair and Regeneration

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of subepidermal moisture (SEM), a biomarker employed for early detection of PI/U, compared to the “Gold Standard” of clinical skin and tissue assessment (STA), and to characterize the timing of SEM changes relative to the diagnosis of a PI/U.

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Using Sub-Epidermal Moisture Level as an Indicator of Early Pressure Damage to Local Skin and Tissue.

Gershon, S. 2020. Advances in Skin and Wound Care

Aim: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether levels of SEM from repeated measures at a localized area confirm the absence of a PI/U at that site in healthy participants.

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Identification of Increased Risk of Pressure Damage With a Sub-Epidermal Moisture Scanner: Clinical Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness.

Budri, A. 2020. British Journal of Healthcare Management

Aim: This article reviews the use of a sub-epidermal moisture (SEM) scanning device as an early and robust method of identifying the increased risk of pressure damage before it is visible on the surface of the skin. This could allow the implementation of early interventions and potentially decrease the frequency of hospital-acquired PI/U.


Click here to access our extensive SEM assessment technology bibliography

If you would like to discuss any of the clinical, health economic or real-world evidence on the website or would like further information on them the team would be happy to assist. Please contact us at: [email protected]

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