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Systematic Reviews & Health Economics

This body of publications focuses on the systematic reviews of SEM assessment technology and confirms how sub-epidermal moisture is used to identify increased risk of pressure injury. Also included are health economic papers highlighting the cost effectiveness and efficiency of using SEM assessment technology.

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Modelling the Cost-Effectiveness of Sub-Epidermal Moisture Measurement as Part of a Process of Assessment and Intervention to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcers.

Posnett, J. et al. 2023. International Wound Journal

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SEM measurement compared with visual skin assessment (VSA). A decision-tree model was developed. Outcomes are quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs to the UK National Health Service.

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Measuring Sub-Epidermal Moisture to Detect Early Pressure Ulcer Development: A Systematic Review.

Moore, Z. et al. 2022. Journal of Wound Care

Aim: The aim was to assess evidence related to the measuring of sub-epidermal moisture (SEM) to detect early, nonvisible development of pressure injury.

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Modelling the Cost-Benefits Arising From Technology-Aided Early Detection of Pressure Ulcers.

Gefen, A. et al. 2020. Wounds International

Aim: In this study, implementation of the new SEM assessment technology (Bruin Biometrics, CA, US) as an adjunct to the current standard of care practice of visual skin assessments has been tested from probabilistic and cost benefit perspectives.

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Bedside Technologies to Enhance the Early Detection of Pressure Injuries – A Systematic Review.

Scafide, K.N. et al. 2020. Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing

Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether sufficient research evidence exists to support the use of bedside technologies for early detection of pressure injures, which is inclusive of pressure-related blanchable erythema (PrBE), pressure-related nonblanchable erythema (PrNBE), and deep tissue pressure injury (DTPI).

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The Cost-Effectiveness of Sub-Epidermal Moisture Scanning to Access Pressure Injury in U.S. Health Systems.

Padula, W.V. et al. 2020. Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management

Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adopting sub-epidermal moisture scanners in comparison to existing hospital-acquired pressure injury prevention guidelines structured around subjective risk assessments.


Click here to access our extensive SEM assessment technology bibliography

If you would like to discuss any of the clinical, health economic or real-world evidence on the website or would like further information on them the team would be happy to assist. Please contact us at: [email protected]

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